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Banking: Terms

A-H · I-P · Q-Z

account -- Money deposited with a financial institution for investment and/or safekeeping purposes.

adjusted balance -- The balance that remains when all payments made during a billing cycle are subtracted from the balance from the previous billing cycle. This balance does not include finance charges for the current billing cycle.

affinity card -- A credit card offered by a lending institution in partnership with another institution. These cards are also known as co-brand cards, because both institutions lend their branding to the card.

annual fee -- A yearly fee charged to a customer to participate in an open-ended credit program.

annual percentage rate (APR) -- The cost of credit expressed as a yearly rate. APR is a percentage that results from an equation considering the amount financed, the finance charges, and the term of the loan.

assets -- Items of monetary value (e.g., house, land, car), owned by an individual or a company.

ATM -- Acronym for automated teller machine.

authorized user -- A person who has been given permission to make changes to a credit account. This status must be given by the primary account user. An authorized user is not legally responsible for repaying the account.

average daily balance -- The balance that results from adding together all the daily balances of a credit account in the billing cycle and dividing by the number of days in the billing cycle. This balance is often used to calculate finance charges.

balance-- An outstanding amount of money. In banking, balance refers to the amount of money in a particular account. In credit, balance refers to the amount owed.

balance transfer-- Repayment of one credit debt with another credit source.

balance transfer fee-- The fee charged to transfer balances between two credit sources. This fee is often a percentage of the amount transferred.

bank -- An establishment for lending, issuing, borrowing, exchanging, and safeguarding money.

bankruptcy -- A legal action taken when a credit holder cannot repay his or her debt. It modifies or eliminates the legal responsibility to repay some forms of debt. This is a serious action that can have serious consequences on a consumerís financial future.

billing cycle -- The period of time that a credit statement covers.

billing statement -- The summary of all actions applied to a credit account during a billing cycle. These can include payments, purchases, finances charges, fees and other transactions.

bond -- An IOU issued by a corporation, the U.S. Government, or a city that is held by the lender as receipt that the business or institution has borrowed a specific amount of money. All bonds pay interest yearly and are payable in full at a specified date written on the bond.

bounced check-- A check that a bank has refused to cash or pay because you have no funds to cover it in your account.

canceled check-- A "used" check that has been paid and subtracted from the check-writer's account. Canceled checks have extra data on them from the bank. They are usually mailed to the writer each month with the statement, although many banks keep records that are available upon request. Canceled checks are excellent receipts that should be kept for reference and tax purposes.

capital-- A stock of accumulated wealth used or available for producing more wealth.

cardholder agreement -- The written statement that defines and explains all legal terms for a credit card agreement. It includes payment terms, billing dispute procedures and communications guidelines, among other items.

cash-- Money in the form of paper and coins (e.g., U.S. dollars and cents). In banking, this is the act of paying a check.

cash advance fee-- A fee assessed when a card holder uses a credit card to obtain cash. These fees are often charged as a percentage of the cash obtained.

cashier's check-- A check issued by a bank, drawn on its own funds rather than on one of its depositor's funds.

certificate of deposit -- A savings account in which an individual promises to deposit the money for a set period of time, for which the bank pays higher interest than a regular savings account.

charge card-- A card that requires a user to pay off the entire balance every month.

check-- Any written document instructing a bank to pay money from the writer's account.

check card -- See debit card.

checking account -- An account for which the holder can write checks. Checking accounts pay less interest than savings accounts, or none at all.

clear -- A check "clears" when its amount is debited (subtracted) from the payer's account and credited (added) to the payee's account.

collateral -- Anything that a bank accepts as security against the debtor's not repaying a loan. If the debtor fails to repay the loan, the bank is allowed to keep the collateral. Collateral is most commonly in the form of real estate (e.g., a home).

commercial bank -- Nongovernmental financial institutions. Sometimes called full-service banks because they provide a wide range of services, such as checking and savings accounts, credit and loan arrangements, and safety deposit box rentals. Commercial banks also sell and redeem U.S. savings bonds.

compound interest -- Interest calculated not only on the original principal, but also on the interest already accrued.

co-signer -- The person who signs on a credit agreement in addition to the primary applicant. This person is legally responsible for repayment of the debt.

credit -- In business, buying or borrowing on the promise to repay at a later date. In any credit arrangement there is a creditor (a person, bank, store, or company to whom money is owed) and a debtor (the person who owes money). In bookkeeping, credit is a sum of money due to an individual or institution.

credit bureau -- An agency that checks credit information and keeps a complete file on people who apply for and use credit.

credit card -- A plastic card that gives access to a line of credit. Users are limited in how much they can charge, but they are not required to repay the full amount each month. Instead the balance (or "revolve") accrues interest with only a minimum payment due.

credit insurance -- A coverage that pays credit card debt in the event of death, disability or loss of employment.

credit limit -- The maximum amount of money a borrower can access in a credit account.

credit rating -- A financial institution's evaluation of whether a person is suitable to receive credit. Credit ratings are based on an individual's character, capacity to repay, and capital.

credit report -- A summary of the credit usage of a consumer, including payment histories and current status of all credit accounts. This plays a very large part in the decision to grant credit to a consumer.

credit union -- A member-owned financial institution, either state or federally chartered. Credit unions are often more competitive than banks and savings and loan associations because its nonprofit status makes its operating costs lower.

currency -- Money -- anything used as a common medium of exchange. In practice, currency means cash, particularly paper money. Bankers often use the phrase "coin and currency" to refer to cents and dollars.

debit -- A bookkeeping term for a sum of money owed by an individual or institution; a charge deducted from an account.

debit card -- A banking card enhanced with ATM (automated teller machine) and POS (point-of-sale) features that can be used to purchase goods and services electronically. The card replaces cash or checks. Transactions are deducted from the cardholder's checking account either immediately or within one to three days. Depending upon the type of card, a debit card may require the user to sign his or her name or enter a PIN (personal identification number) into special equipment.

default -- A status assigned to a cardholder if he or she fails to perform or conform to all the items listed in the cardholder agreement.

demand deposit -- A checking account.

deposit slip -- An itemized slip showing the exact amount of paper money, coin, and checks being deposited to a particular account.

depositor -- An individual or company that puts money in a bank account.

endorse -- To sign, as the payee, the back of a check before cashing, depositing, or giving it to someone else. The first endorsement must be made by the payee to authorize the transaction. Later endorsements may be made by whomever receives the check.

federal reserve system -- A governmental agency established by Congress to organize and regulate banking throughout the United States. The twelve reserve banks keep paper and currency reserves for affiliated banks.

fixed rate -- An interest rate that does not vary over time.

foreign currency surcharge -- A fee charged when a card purchase utilizes a foreign currency and it must be converted into the cardholderís home currency.

grace period -- The length of time between the use of credit to make a purchase and the start of interest on the amount charged.

guarantor -- A person who is financially responsible for the repayment of a credit account but has no use privileges.

index -- A published interest rate that is used to determine the actual rate charged with a variable interest rate account. The prime rate, published in the Wall Street Journal, is often used as the index.

interest -- The fee paid for the use of money. Interest may be paid, for example, by an individual to a bank for credit card use, or by a bank to an individual for holding a savings account. Interest is expressed in terms of annual percentage rate (APR).

introductory rate -- A temporarily low interest rate, used as incentive to entice a consumer to sign up for credit. After the introductory period, the rate will increase to the standard percentage.

joint account -- A savings or checking account established in the names of more than one person (e.g., parent/child, wife/husband).

liabilities -- Money owed to individuals, businesses, or institutions.

late payment fee -- A fee charged to a consumer if his or her monthly payment is made after the due date stated on the billing statement.

line of credit -- An authorized amount of credit given to an individual, business, or institution.

market economy -- An economic system permitting an open exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers, such as is found in the United States.

minimum payment -- The smallest payment a consumer can make in a billing cycle to keep the account from going into default.

money -- Anything generally recognized as a medium of exchange.

mortgage -- A long-term loan obtained by individuals to buy a home that legally transfers ownership from the debtor to the creditor until the debt is paid.

overdraft -- A check written for more money than is currently in the account. If the bank refuses to cash the check, it is said to have "bounced."

passbook -- A booklet given by the bank to the depositor to record deposits, withdrawals, and interest earned on a savings account.

payee -- An individual or company to whom a check is written; one who receives money as payment.

payer -- An individual or company who writes a check; one who gives money as payment.

penalty rate -- A higher interest rate imposed on an account when it has lapsed into default.

personal identification number (PIN) -- A code that provides security for consumers at an ATM.

point of sale (POS) -- The store or other location where a transaction takes place.

posting date -- The date when a transaction is recognized on your account.

pre-approved -- A term used to denote a credit offer that is extended after the creditor has performed a credit pre-screening process.

previous balance -- The balance that has carried over from the previous billing period.

prime rate -- An index rate that is used to determine the APR in a variable interest rate account.

principal -- The original amount of money borrowed, deposited, or invested before interest accrues.

proprietary credit card -- A private labeled credit card typically issued by a department store or petroleum company that can only be used at those specific outlets.

refinance -- To revise a loan agreement to make the terms of payment more suitable to a borrower's present income and ability to repay. Refinancing usually provides a lower interest rate and lower monthly payments over a longer period of time.

revolving line of credit -- A credit agreement that allows a consumer to borrow a set amount of money, then after repayment of any portion of that money, the consumer may borrow again up to the original set amount. A credit card is a form of revolving credit.

savings account -- A bank account that accrues interest in exchange for use of the money on deposit.

savings and loan association -- State-chartered or federally-chartered financial intermediary that accepts deposits from the public and invests those funds primarily in residential mortgage loans.

secured card -- A credit card that is guaranteed by a security deposit so that repayment of the amount borrowed is assured. This is an option to begin to repair a bad credit history.

service charge -- A monthly fee a bank charges for handling a checking account.

stop payment -- A request made to a bank to not pay a specific check. If requested soon enough, the check will not be debited from the payer's account. Normally there is a charge for this service.

terms -- The period of time and the interest rate arranged between creditor and debtor to repay a loan.

tiered -- A term that applies to interest rates, where the actual rate applied depends on the balance on the account.

transaction date -- The date that a purchase was made or a cash advance was taken.

truth in lending act -- A law that required a lender to inform a borrower of the amount financed, total finance charges, annual percentage rate, payment schedule, and many more important figures.

unsecured debt -- A credit source that is not guaranteed with collateral.

variable rate -- An interest rate that changes and is determined by adding the index rate to the previously disclosed margin.

wire transfer -- A transaction that electronically transfers money from one financial institution to another.

withdrawal -- An amount of money taken out of an account.

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